Sunday, March 28, 2010



SpOrTs are TImeLess acTIvITIes; Ones ThaT humans have enjOyed sInce aT LeasT ancIenT TImes, as exempLIfIed by The Greek OLympIc Games.

TIme LIne
MedIevaL perIOd (12oo - 1485)
Tudor and STuarT perIod (1485 - 1714)
HanOverIan perIOd (1714 – 179o)
ChangIng TImes (179o -183o)
VIcTOrIan SpOrT (183o – 19o1)
EdwardIan SpOrT (19o1 - 1918)
BeTween The wOrLd wars (1918 - 194o)
BrITIsh SpOrT (194o- TOday)

Friday, February 12, 2010


Definition of Dysgraphia
"Dysgraphia" is a learning disability resulting from the difficulty in expressing thoughts in writing and graphing. It generally refers to extremely poor handwriting. A student with any degree of handwriting difficulty may be labeled "dysgraphic" by some educational specialists, but may or may not need special education services because "dysgraphia" has no clearly defined criteria.

Underlying Causes
Students with dysgraphia often have sequencing problems such as reversing letters/numbers, writing words backwards, writing letters out of order, and very sloppy handwriting usually seems to be directly related to sequential/rational information processing. These students often have difficulty with the sequence of letters and words as they write.

As a result, the student either needs to slow down in order to write accurately, or experiences extreme difficulty with the "mechanics" of writing (spelling, punctuation, etc.). They also tend to intermix letters and numbers in formulas. Usually they have difficulty even when they do their work more slowly. And by slowing down or getting "stuck" with the details of writing they often lose the thoughts that they are trying to write about.

Students with an attention deficit disorder (especially with hyperactivity) often experience rather significant difficulty with writing and formulas in general and handwriting in particular. This is because ADHD students also have difficulty organizing and sequencing detailed information. In addition, ADHD students are often processing information at a very rapid rate and simply don't have the fine-motor coordination needed to "keep up" with their thoughts.

Some students can also experience writing difficulty because of a general auditory or language processing weakness. Because of their difficulty learning and understanding language in general, they obviously have difficulty with language expression. Recall that written language is the most difficult form of language expression.

Although most students with dysgraphia do not have visual or perceptual processing problems, some students with a visual processing weakness will experience difficulty with writing speed and clarity simply because they aren't able to fully process the visual information as they are placing it on the page.

1. Students may exhibit strong verbal but particularly poor writing skills .
2. Random (or non-existent) punctuation. Spelling errors (sometimes same word
spelled differently); reversals; phonic approximations; syllable omissions;
errors in common suffixes. Clumsiness and disordering of syntax; an impression of
illiteracy. Misinterpretation of questions and questionnaire items. Disordered
numbering and written number reversals.
3. Generally illegible writing (despite appropriate time and attention given the
4. Inconsistencies : mixtures of print and cursive, upper and lower case, or
irregular sizes, shapes, or slant of letters.
5. Unfinished words or letters, omitted words.
6. Inconsistent position on page with respect to lines and margins and inconsistent
spaces between words and letters.
7. Cramped or unusual grip, especially holding the writing instrument very close to
the paper, or holding thumb over two fingers and writing from the wrist.
8. Talking to self while writing, or carefully watching the hand that is writing.
9. Slow or labored copying or writing - even if it is neat and legible.


1. Encourage students to outline their thoughts. It is important to get the main
ideas down on paper without having to struggle with the details of spelling,
punctuation, etc

2. Have students draw a picture of a thought for each paragraph.

3. Have students dictate their ideas into a tape recorder and then listen and write
them down later.

4. Have them practice keyboarding skills. It may be difficult at first, but after
they have learned the pattern of the keys, typing will be faster and clearer than

5. Have a computer available for them to organize information and check spelling.
Even if their keyboarding skills aren't great, a computer can help with the

6. Have them continue practicing handwriting. There will be times throughout a
student's life that they will need to be able to write things down and maybe even
share their handwriting with others. It will continue to improve as long as the
student keeps working at it.

7. Encourage student to talk aloud as they write. This may provide valuable auditory

8. Allow more time for written tasks including note-taking, copying, and tests.

9. Outline the particular demands of the course assignments/continuous assessment;
exams, computer literacy etc. so that likely problems can be foreseen.

10.Give and allow students to begin projects or assignments early.

11.Include time in the student's schedule for being a 'library assistant' or 'office
assistant' that could also be used for catching up or getting ahead on written
work, or doing alternative activities related to the material being learned.

12.Instead of having the student write a complete set of notes, provide a partially
completed outline so the student can fill in the details under major headings (or
provide the details and have the student provide the headings).

13.Allow the student to dictate some assignments or tests (or parts thereof) a
'scribe'. Train the 'scribe' to write what the student says verbatim and then
allow the student to make changes, without assistance from the scribe.

14.Remove 'neatness' or 'spelling' (or both) as grading criteria for some
assignments, or design assignments to be evaluated on specific parts of the
writing process.

15.With the students, allow abbreviations in some writing (such as b/c for because).
Have the student develop a repertoire of abbreviations in a notebook. These will
come in handy in future note-taking situations.

16.Reduce copying aspects of work; for example, in Math, provide a worksheet with
the problems already on it instead of having the student copy the problems.

17.Separate the writing into stages and then teach students to do the same. Teach
the stages of the writing process (brainstorming, drafting, editing, and
proofreading, etc.). Consider grading these stages even on some 'one-sitting'
written exercises, so that points are awarded on a short essay for brainstorming
and a rough draft, as well as the final product.

18.On a computer, the student can produce a rough draft, copy it, and then revise
the copy, so that both the rough draft and final product can be evaluated without
extra typing.

19.Encourage the student to use a spellchecker and, if possible, have someone else
proofread his work, too. Speaking spellcheckers are recommended, especially if
the student may not be able to recognize the correct word (headphones are usually

20.Allow the student to use cursive or manuscript, whichever is most legible

21.Encourage primary students to use paper with the raised lines to keep writing on
the line.

22.Allow older students to use the line width of their choice. Keep in mind that
some students use small writing to disguise its messiness or spelling.

23.Allow students to use paper or writing instruments of different colors.

24.Allow student to use graph paper for math, or to turn lined paper sideways, to
help with lining up columns of numbers.

25.Allow the student to use the writing instrument that is most comfortable for

26.If copying is laborious, allow the student to make some editing marks rather than
recopying the whole thing.

27.Consider whether use of speech recognition software will be helpful. If the
student and teacher are willing to invest time and effort in 'training' the
software to the student's voice and learning to use it, the student can be freed
from the motor processes of writing or keyboarding.

28.Develop cooperative writing projects where different students can take on roles
such as the 'brainstormer,' 'organizer of information,' 'writer,' 'proofreader,'
and 'illustrator.'

29.Provide extra structure and use intermittent deadlines for long-term
assignments. Discuss with the student and parents the possibility of enforcing
the due dates by working after school with the teacher in the event a deadline
arrives and the work is not up-to-date.

30.Build handwriting instruction into the student's schedule. The details and degree
of independence will depend on the student's age and attitude, but many students
would like to have better handwriting.

31.Keep in mind that handwriting habits are entrenched early. Before engaging in a
battle over a student's grip or whether they should be writing in cursive or
print, consider whether enforcing a change in habits will eventually make the
writing task a lot easier for the student, or whether this is a chance for the
student to make his or her own choices. Beware of overload, the student has other
tasks and courses.

32.Teach alternative handwriting methods such as "Handwriting Without Tears."

33.Writing just one key word or phrase for each paragraph, and then going back later
to fill in the details may be effective.

34.Multisensory techniques should be utilized for teaching both manuscript and
cursive writing. The techniques need to be practiced substantially so that the
letters are fairly automatic before the student is asked to use these skills to
communicate ideas.

35.Have the students use visual graphic organizers. For example, you can create a
mind map so that the main idea is placed in a circle in the center of the page
and supporting facts are written on lines coming out of the main circle, similar
to the arms of a spider or spokes on a wheel.

36.Do papers and assignments in a logical step-wise sequence. An easy way to
remember these steps is to think of the word POWER.

P - plan your paper
O - organize your thoughts and ideas
W - write your draft
E - edit your work
R - revise your work, producing a final draft

37.If a student becomes fatigued have them try the following:
* Shake hands fast, but not violently.
* Rub hands together and focus on the feeling of warmth.
* Rub hands on the carpet in circles (or, if wearing clothing with some mild
texture, rub hands on thighs, close to knees)
* Use the thumb of the dominant hand to click the top of a ballpoint pen while
holding it in that hand. Repeat using the index finger.
* Perform sitting pushups by placing each palm on the chair with fingers facing
forward. Students push down on their hands, lifting their body slightly off the

38.Allow student to tape record important assignments and/or take oral tests.

39.Prioritize certain task components during a complex activity. For example,
students can focus on using descriptive words in one assignment, and in another,
focus on using compound sentences.

40.Reinforce the positive aspects of student's efforts.

41.Be patient and encourage student to be patient with himself.

Strategies For Spelling Difficulties:

1. Encourage consistent use of spell checker to decrease the overall demands of the
writing task and encourage students to wait until the end to worry about spelling.

2. Encourage use of an electronic resource such as the spell check component in a
Franklin Language Master® to further decrease the demands. If student has
concurrent reading problems, a Language Master® with a speaking component is most
helpful because it will read/say the words.

3. Have the student look at each word, then close their eyes and visualize how it
looks, letter by letter.

4. Have the student spell each word out loud while looking at it, then look away and
spell it out loud again several times before writing it down.

5. Have the students break the spelling list down into manageable sections of only 3
to 5 words. Then take a break after mastering each section.

6. Have a scrabble board and computer accessible for affected students.

Dysgraphia does not have to limit creativity, as identified by the sample below composed on a computer by a 12-year-old dyslexic and dysgraphic student.

a) First draft of creative story as typed by 12-year-old student:
the way I descride a bumby ride is like wothgan mowtsarts mowsek. eshe bumby rowd
is like a song. Eshe bumb is the a note eche uncon at the sam time ste is. that
was the mewstere to mowts mowsuk it was vare metereus and unperdekdable.So the
next time you drive down a bumby theak of mowtsart.

b) Same story. Student read to teacher using his draft:
"The way I describe a bumpy ride is like Wolfgang Mozart's music. Each bumpy road
is like a song. Each bump in the road is a note. Each bump is uncontrolled at the
same time it still is controlled. That was the magic to Mozart's music. It was
very mysterious and unpredictable. So the next time you drive down a bumpy road
think of Mozart."


Kaedah untuk Mengingat : Chunking

Definition of Chunking
In cognitive psychology and mnemonics, chunking refers to a strategy for making more efficient use of short-term memory by recoding information. More generally, Herbert Simon has used the term chunk to indicate long-term memory structures that can be used as units of perception and meaning, and chunking as the learning mechanisms leading to the acquisition of these chunks. Chunking means to organize items into familiar manageable units.

How to use it
A 'chunk' is a piece of information that you view as a single 'thing'. Chunks can come in different sizes. 'The world' is a big chunk. 'The Universe' is even bigger. 'An atom' is very small. These are physical. You can also have conceptual chunks. 'Universal love' is big. 'Family ties' are smaller. 'Narcissism' is smaller still.

Chunk up
Chunking up is about taking a broader view. Helicopter up to 30,000 feet. Survey the landscape to see the whole system. Ask 'Why' things happen to find higher-level purpose. Ask 'what is this an instance of' to find a more general classification. Use inductive reasoning to go from specific detail to general theories and explanations.

Chunk down
Chunking down is about going into detail to find smaller and more specific elements of the system. Ask 'How' things happen to find lower-level detail. Ask 'What, specifically' to probe for more information. Ask 'Give me an example' to get specific instances of a class. Use deductive reasoning to go from general theories and ideas to specific cases and instances.

Chunk up and down
Chunking up and down go well together as a way of looking differently at the same situation. Chunk up from the existing situation to find a general or broader view. Then chunk down somewhere else. This works for scientists too. They observe empirical data. Then chunk up using inductive reasoning to creative an explanatory theory. Then chunk down though deduction to a hypothesis about what should work in another situation.

Redefining the problem
I am thinking about the problem of how heavy my luggage is.
Chunking up, I redefine the problem as transportation.
Chunking down, I redefine the problem as one of luggage size and contents.

Creative usage
I want to redesign a table.
I chunk up by looking at it as a supporting device.
I chunk down into chair (table attached to chair arm?), stool (fold out top to convert stool to table?) and floor (table rises out of floor?).

How it works
Chunking down uses the principle of decomposition, breaking things down into smaller pieces. Chunking up simply reverses this to get a higher-level viewpoint.It also works by moving people from their preferred chunk level to a platform where they normally do not go (note, for example, how some people dive instinctively into the detail).


Friday, January 29, 2010

Kaedah untuk mengingat - Latih Tubi

Latih tubi merupakan satu cara mengajar yang berkesan dalam menangani masalah pengamatan dengan mengulang-ulangkan fakta atau sesuatu kecekapan yang diajar di mana ia merupakan sebahagian daripada usaha menghafal atau mengingat sesuatu.

Tujuan teknik ini digunakan dalam proses pengajaran adalah untuk mencapai tahap kemahiran yang maksimum dan menjadikan apa yang dipelajari itu kekal dalam ingatan serta mengaplikasikannya dalam situasi-situasi lain.
Kaedah untuk mengingat - 'Classification'
The seven levels of classification are: Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.
One way to remember it is using an acronym: Kangaroos Playing Cards On Fat Green Snakes.

Tuesday, January 26, 2010

Kaedah Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Mengingat (Kategori)

The definition of category is a specifically defined division in a system of classification or a class.

Example of category
State Movement Proximity Shape/Volume
Solid Very little; slow Very tightly packed Definite shape and volume
Liquid Free to move; faster Close together No definite shape; definite
Gas Very fast Very far apart No definite shape or
volume;fills container

Kaedah Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Mengingat (Mnemonics)

Mnemonics are devices to help us remember (aide memoire or memory aide). They come in many varieties and flavours, and can aid memorisation of many types of information. This section concentrates on mnemonics related to words and numbers.
It can be found them in every discipline from music, medicine, biology, and electronics to spelling, physics, geography, and remembering telephone numbers.

The following famous mnemonics are to aid the memory of.

 ~Big Elephants Can Always Understand Small Elephants.
 ~Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain.
 ~Every Good Boy Deserves Favour.
 ~A Rat In The House May Eat The Ice Cream.
 ~High to Low; look out below. Low to High; clear blue sky.
 ~How I like a drink, alcoholic of course, after the heavy lectures
involving quantum mechanics.

Rhymes and Catch Phrases

The following rhyming phrase helps people to remember how to spell such difficult words as receive.

I before E, except after C.
Unfortunately this rule does not always apply. One common exception is the word weird, which has prompted some people to use the extended version of this mnemonic:

I before E, except after C.
And "weird" is just weird.

Sadly there are many, many more exceptions. Nevertheless this remains a very popular memory aid for spelling. The following adaptation is somewhat better:

I before E, except after C.
Or when sounded "A" as in neighbor and weigh.

Just don't rely on this one for spelling words like weir and seize!

The following mnemonic is used by pilots. If temperature or pressure drops, you will be lower (in altitude) than the aircraft's instruments suggest if they are left uncorrected. On the other hand, a rise in temperature or pressure will result in the opposite effect.

High to Low; look out below.
Low to High; clear blue sky.

This is somewhat reminiscent of these popular rhymes which guide people on what kind of weather red skies and rainbows generally herald depending on the time of day at which they are seen.

Red sky at night: shepherd's delight.
Red sky in the morning: shepherd's warning.

Rainbow in the morning: travellers take warning.
Rainbow at night: travellers' delight.

Rainbows indicate humid air. A morning rainbow is seen in the West – the direction from which storms generally come – and so often appears before bad weather. Evening rainbows, which appear in the East, usually indicate the passing of stormy weather.

Spelling Acronyms
The following mnemonics are sentences or phrases in which the initial letters of the words spell out a word which many people find rather tricky to spell.

Big Elephants Can Always Understand Small Elephants

A Rat In The House May Eat The Ice Cream

General Eisenhower's Oldest Girl Rode A Pony Home Yesterday

Rhythm Helps Your Two Hips Move

Not Every Cat Eats Sardines (Some Are Really Yummy)

A Rude Girl Undresses; My Eyes Need Taping!

Only Cats' Eyes Are Narrow

And a neat way to remember how to spell POTASSIUM: just remember one tea, two sugars. You can use a similar aide memoire to prevent confusion between DESERTS (like the Sahara) and DESSERTS (like Tiramisu) by remembering that the sweet one has two sugars.

List Order Acronyms
This is certainly one of the most popular mnemonic techniques.
Order of colours in the rainbow, or visual spectrum:
(Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet)
Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain.

Order of taxonomy in biology:
(Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species)
Kids Prefer Cheese Over Fried Green Spinach.

Order of geological time periods:
(Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, Recent)
Cows Often Sit Down Carefully. Perhaps Their Joints Creak?
Persistent Early Oiling Might Prevent Painful Rheumatism.

Order of Mohs hardness scale, from 1 to 10:
(Talc, Gypsum, Calcite, Fluorite, Apatite, Orthoclase feldspar, Quartz, Topaz, Corundum, Diamond)
Toronto Girls Can Flirt, And Other Queer Things Can Do.

The order of sharps in music, called the "circle of fifths":
(F, C, G, D, A, E, B)
Father Charles Goes Down And Ends Battle.
And in reverse for flat keys the mnemonic can be neatly reversed:
Battle Ends And Down Goes Charles' Father.

The notes represented by the lines on the treble clef stave (bottom to top):
(E, G, B, D, F)
Every Good Boy Deserves Favour.
And the notes represented by the spaces between the lines:
(F, A, C, E)
Furry Animals Cook Excellently. Or just the word FACE

The notes represented by the lines on the bass clef stave (bottom to top):
(G, B, D, F, A)
Good Boys Do Fine, Always.
And the notes represented by the spaces between the lines:
(A, C, E, G)
All Cows Eat Grass.

The order of planets in average distance from the Sun:
(Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto)
My Very Easy Method: Just Set Up Nine Planets.